The main factor determining the population in a country is the difference between birth rates and death rates. There are some reasons that are effective in the population growth of a society or country. The reasons such as gaining or losing land after the war, epidemics, infectious diseases, migration movements, natural disasters, geographical climate changes, scarcity or abundance of natural resources, abundance or scarcity in food resources affect the density, size and mobility of the population. The world is already discussing the problems that arise due to the population growth rate. How many people will the world’s resources be enough for, will there be effects on people’s living standards, will there be a fair income distribution? Will people be able to live without hunger and misery?Overpopulation leads to increased unemployment. The low population causes the production to become inefficient. Unemployment is mostly found in underdeveloped countries. In countries that have achieved economic development, everyone is provided with a job, life expectancy is extended, health, education, culture and the average standard of living are evenly distributed. The country’s resources are evenly distributed. Economic efficiency increases. But if population growth increases, economic efficiency decreases. Scientific and technological developments in the world have led to population growth. Population growth started with the agricultural revolution and then with the industrial revolution, there was a population explosion. In addition, it has been observed that population growth has increased with the beginning of the Information Technology and Electronic Age. It has been observed that the population has increased with the increase in medicine, health, nutrition and living standards. In addition, people’s life expectancy has increased. There are also reasons for migrations that cause the population density of countries to increase or decrease. E.g; Insufficient wages, lack of research and development opportunities, lack of equipment, seeking social and economic welfare.
Today, we can examine the problems caused by world population growth in 5 items.
1- Raw Material and Nutrition
2- Distribution of National Income
3- Demographic Investments
4- Contribution of savings to production
The rapid increase in population will threaten the world with hunger and war. Rapidly increasing population, agricultural lands destroyed as a result of natural disasters and erosion, increase in consumption cause food crisis in the world. According to the research of the World Health Organization, there is a positive relationship between nutrition and the level of development. The higher the nutritional level, the higher the growth and development. Inadequate and unhealthy nutrition reduces working power, the rate of absenteeism increases, work accidents increase, and the ability of the employee decreases. This results in an inefficient workforce. Poorer quality and less production causes a decrease in the welfare level of countries. As the population increases, the education, health, shelter and nutrition needs of newborn children must also be met.In countries such as Turkey, where the number of children in the total population is very high, it requires the use of already scarce country resources only in order not to lower the standard of living. Population growth reduces per capita income. The growth of the economy is measured by the increase in national income. Population growth in low- and middle-income countries is uneven. Therefore, their share of national income is decreasing rapidly. The level of welfare is declining rapidly. The main reason for unemployment and the related employment problem in Turkey today is the high rate of population growth. As a result, we can say that population growth is excessively high; It disrupts the social and economic balance of these countries, disrupts health services, lowers the level of education, has difficulty in finding a job, and increases hidden unemployment. To prevent this, natural resources awareness should be consumed. Population growth must be brought under control. Agrarian reform must be done. Productivity should be increased in agriculture. Migration from village to city should be stopped and planned development policies should be established.